It is the transparent part of the eye, which is having two-thirds of the eye’s total optical power.
It covers the iris,pupil and anterior chamber.
It is having five layer structure. The average corneal diameter is 11.5mm vertical and 12mm horizontal.
Common Corneal Pathology:
Corneal ulcer and keratitis:
- The break in continuity of corneal tissue is called corneal ulcer. It may be caused by harmful stimuli like infection, allergy, injury.
- Unlike already described treatment modalities, corneal scrapping is done in which small amount of diseased corneal tissue is removed and sent for the pathological assay, which helps in evaluation of type of organism causing infection. So that specific treatment is started for promotion of early recovery. Many times glue and BCL helps in healing of wound. Traumatic injury to the cornea leads to break in the superficial layers of cornea, causes corneal abrasion. If it is deep cut then it is called corneal tear and needs urgent corneal tear repair surgery to restore the vision and avoid complications related to infection, many time full thickness corneal tear can lead to permanent vision loss.
- When it is not surgical case, then treatment with topical medicine started which requires a long duration treatment , regular follow up.
- As cornea is a transparent structure most of corneal pathology heals with the formation of scar and loss of transparency and moderate to severe visual loss. Which can be managed by corneal transplantation.
- Pterygium is excess growth of subconjuctival tissue which may encrode on the cornea. When it is small, may be symptomless but if it is a fleshy pterygium, causes symptoms of irritation, burning, redness, watering, and decreased vision.
- It may be unilateral/bilateral, commonly nasal, may be temporal, mostly affects the people who are exposed to excessive sunlight (UV Light) wind, sand, dust, smoke. As far as treatment modalities are concerned, topical medication helps in relief from the symptoms, but permanent solution is surgery, which includes pterygium excision with autoconjunctival grafting; still the chances of recurrency is there. In preventive part usage of protective sunglasses to avoid exposure to sunlight, dust, allergy.
- At Sunder Netralaya, we do regular corneal surgeries . Amniotic membrane grafting in the patients who have extensive ocular surface damage to restore the near normal ocular surface anatomy and physiology.
Keratoprosthesis - When permenant blindness is there specially from corneal disorder and when corneal transplantation is not possible then implanation of keratoprosthesis is done. - We have already applied for Eye Bank, Eye Donation Center and Keratoplasty Center.
- We guide for the eye donation and works in the promotion of eye donation.
- We are having contact lens clinic in which, specialized contact lenses prescribed. Which includes spherical, toric lenses and lenses for keratoconnus.
Systemic immunosuppressive agents
Lubrication Eyelid closure Conjunctival flap
Bandage soft contact lenses Amniotic membrane grafting
Tissue adhesive Limbal stem cell transplantation